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Serological and Histochemical Detecti...

Serological and Histochemical Detection of Chlamydophila psittaci in Poultry at Live Bird Markets in Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria

Abstract

Chlamydophilial infections leading to outbreaks of avian chlamydophilosis in domestic as well as companion birds have been reported worldwide, which reflects in economic loss to the owner and potential zoonotic transmission to humans. Study on the occurrence and prevalence ofChlamydophila psittaci in birds at live bird markets in Kaduna metropolis, Nigeria was carried out using Immuno Comb enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (IC ELISA) and modified Gimenez staining technique (mGS). Sera from 64 local chickens, 43 ducks, 64 pigeons, 64 broilers, 64 exotic layers, 48 turkeys and 64 guinea fowls were examined. Using the IC ELISA, 41.46% (85) and 34.95% (72) from thebirds sampled from Central and Waff Road markets tested positive for C. psittaci, with an overall seroprevalence of 38.00%. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in the prevalence of the infection from birds sampled in Central and Waff Road markets. Among various types of birds examined, the highest sero prevalence was recorded in pigeons 67.19% (43), duck 51.16% (22) and guinea fowl 46.88% (30) while the least sero prevalence were recorded in exotic layers 18.75% (12) and broilers 15.63% (10). Nevertheless, there was significant difference (P<0.05) in prevalence of the infection among the various types of birds examined. The prevalence of the infection by mGS showed 4.10% (9) and 3.40% (7) from Central and Waff Road markets, with the highest prevalence in local chickens 6.25% (4) and 0.0% (0) in turkey. Statistical analysis by Kappa statistics indicate a slight agreement between the two tests. The results of this study confirmed our suspicion about the presence of C. psittaci in birds at live bird markets in Kaduna metropolis. Thus, routine screening of birds in abattoirs, quarantine stations, farms and enlightenment of the general public on avian chlamydophilosis control should be advocated.

Key Words

Birds, ELISA, mGS, Chlamydophila psittaci, zoonotic.

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